Petra this monument is an important archaeological site in Jordan, and the capital of the Nabataean kingdom. The name comes from the Greek, meaning stone, but the name is appropriate, since it is not a city built of stone, but literally, carved and sculpted in stone.
The settlement extends from the “Dead Sea” to the Gulf of Aqaba, which is located in a narrow valley, east of the “Arava Valley.”
It was founded in the late seventh century. C., but was occupied in the sixth century. BC by the Nabataeans, who made it prosper thanks to the situation of the caravan route that transported incense, spices and many more luxury goods between Syria, Egypt, Arabia and the Mediterranean south.
Entering the eighth century the decline of the city was higher, thanks to those suffered earthquakes and changing commercial caravan route. Therefore, it was forgotten in the modern era, but in 1812 it was rediscovered by Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt.
The many buildings whose facades were included directly in rock, formed part of a monumental complex from 6 December of the year 1985 was inscribed on the World Heritage list, organized by Unesco. The area surrounding the site is known as Archaeological National Park since 1993.
The July 7, 2007 it became part of the “New Seven Wonders of the Modern World.
The monument is located at an altitude of 800-1396 meters above sea level, located in a mountain valley of Edom. The same is east of the Arabah Valley. The city today is about 200 kilometers south of the Jordanian capital Amman, leaving a distance of about 3 hours drive.