This building was built between 1631 and 1654 in the city of Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India, which is on the banks of river Yamuna, the same was built by Muslim emperor Shah Jahan, who comes from the Mongol dynasty.
The monument is dedicated to the dearest wife of the emperor, Arjumand Bano Begum, who died in childbirth of her fourteenth child. In the construction of the estimated effort required over 20,000 workers, yet they lasted 23 years in the preparation.
The monument is considered the finest example of Mughal architecture, which combines four architectural elements which are Islamic, Persian, Indian and even Turkish. The same has achieved special notoriety in the romantic character. The building is a complex of buildings, but the mausoleum is covered by the white marble dome is the best known, the Taj Mahal, as stated earlier, has several buildings that are built the same.
In 1983, he was recognized as a World Heritage Site by Unesco. This monument is built into the “Seven Wonders of the World” with the number seven position.
The formal elements used in construction will be mentioned below, the finial: kick ornate domes, also used in Asian pagodas. The lotus decoration: flower outline lotus carved domes. Acebollada Dome: also called “amrud”, typical of the architecture of Islam, and that would be used later in Russia. The Drum: cylindrical base of the dome, which supports and formal transition on the basement of the building. The Guldasta: Decorative needle attached to the edge of the bearing walls. The chattri: kiosk columns and dome, also used in isolation or as a memorial exempt. Valances: closure panels on arches. Calligraphy: stylized writing of verses from the Koran on the main arches. The arches or portals: also called pishtaq (Persian word for exempt portals). Dice: decorative panels flanking the main walls.
The building incorporates three edilicias increases and traditions, which are Islam, Persia and India. It also integrates the Indian Mughal architecture.
Some of the domestic buildings of the Taj Mahal are these, Darwaza giving access to the Taj Mahal, the Masjid, which is the mosque and inside the mosque. All three have the above as formal design elements.
Some of the highlights of the Taj Mahal are the tombs of Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz, a screen surrounding the cenotaph in hollow marble and inlaid with precious stones and empty cenotaphs are tombs.
To carry out this construction began with the foundation of the mausoleum. He dug and filled an area of over 12,000 square meters with rubble, which reduced seepage of river Yamuna. It was built nearly 15 feet above the shore to avoid the above.
To be safest possible water leaks, I dig to find ground water, which are filled with stone and rubble, which formed the basis for the foundation. Not content with the foundation and made fillings left open in order to monitor the change of the water table well.
To enable the transfer of marble and other materials to the monument, a road of over 15 km in length was used. Transfer teams were formed by 20 or 30 oxen, which together could carry the weight of the materials that were needed to build the monument.